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Which Pharmaceuticals Can Cannabis Replace Following numerous researches and a variety of potent effects which have been realized due to the use of cannabis and cannabis related drugs, there are a wide variety of pharmaceuticals that could be potentially be replaced by cannabis. Though a lot of research has been conducted and several studies are still underway, here are some of the likely pharmaceuticals we could see giving way to cannabis in the near future: Cannabis for opioids There are states where medicinal use of cannabis has been legalized for over two decades now, and these states have seen the rates of the usage of opioids significantly drop and so are the deaths related to the prescription of these drugs. According to a Working Paper published in 2015, a research conducted by RAND Corporation concluded that across the 17 states where the use of medicinal cannabis was legalized, there was a drop in the deaths related to opioids overdose by between 16 – 31% following the legalization of the cannabis laws. Another survey conducted in 2016 assessed 244 patients suffering from chronic pains and who were on medicinal cannabis. Through this survey, it was discovered that the use of opioids declined by 64% and the quality of life score for the participants increased by an average of 45%. These and many other findings make a strong case to suggest that it is just a matter of time before medicinal cannabis completely replace opioids in the management of chronic pain. Cannabis for antiepileptic drugs There are certain severe forms of epilepsy that still doesn’t have concrete medications for controlling seizures. For instance, seizures associated with types like Dravet Syndrome was a big problem until it was discovered that CBD could be used to manage such seizures. As a matter of fact, Epidiolex by GW Pharmaceuticals is now being recognized as an orphan drug in the United States, since it can treat a condition which no other legally recognized drug can treat. However, quite a number of forms of epilepsy exist and these could be treated using the traditional anticonvulsant medication and most of them come with varied side effects which can sometimes be very detrimental. Several states in the United States now consider epilepsy as an approved condition which can be treated with cannabis based medications. It has also been observed by very many epilepsy patients that treatment using CBD based drugs is more effective and have less debilitating side effects. Other pharmaceuticals that can be replaced by cannabis Other than the above, cannabis as shown promising results as a potential replacement for other pharmaceuticals such as: Antipsychotics – these could be potentially be replaced, especially those based on CBD, simply because CBD is very rich in antipsychotic properties. Anti-Insomnia – these are also potential candidates since CBD and THC have been discovered to note only encourage sleep, but also increase the duration and quality of sleep. ADHD – ADHD drugs such as Adderall and Ritalin are not suitable for all types of ADHD patients and a good number of such patients are now opting to replace their meds with cannabis based prescriptions. Posted on April 09, 2019 April 08, 2019 Categories Cannabis as MedicineTags Benefits of Cannabis, Cannabis Legalisation, Marijuana PerksLeave a comment on Which Pharmaceuticals Can Cannabis Replace Lamens Understanding of Pot THC – An Article By Someone Who Has Never Consumed It Tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, is the chemical responsible for the euphoric high associated with marijuana. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, HTC acts in the same way as cannabinoid chemicals found naturally in our bodies. Cannabinoid are nothing but receptors present in large numbers in the sections of the brain associated with time perception, coordination, pleasure, memory and thinking. THC normally gets attached to the receptors in these parts of the brain and once the receptors are activated, an individual’s pleasure, memory, time perception, coordination, movement, concentration, and thinking capabilities are affected. But THC is just one of the plethora compounds found in a marijuana plant. Its initial isolation from marijuana was done in 1964 by an Israeli chemist known as Raphael Mechoulam. He managed to successfully isolate and synthesize THC from hashish from Lebanon and this marked the beginning of the numerous research and studies involving cannabinoids and the behaviour of cannabinoid receptors throughout the body. How THC Affects the Body The details of the working of THC in the body is quite comprehensive, but in simple terms, THC works by binding itself to the cannabinoid receptors present in the central nervous system and the brain to create the various psychoactive effects. THC will produce a wide range of both short term and long term effects and these will vary from one individual to another. For instance, others will find that HTC elicits feeling of great calm and peace while others may realize that their levels of anxiety increases upon taking HTC. The other short term related effects of THC include: Positive Side Effects Elation & Relaxation Sedation & Pain Relief Energy & Euphoria Creativity & Motivation Negative Side Effects Increased heartbeat Increased feelings of hunger Memory loss Feelings of drowsiness Red eyes and dry mouth Slower perception of time Paranoia or anxiety Medicinal uses of THC Marijuana has been in use for treating or offering relief to various ailments for close to 3000 years. In the United States, the use of medicinal marijuana is legal while there are also a good number of states where using it for recreational purposes may not get you in trouble with the law. Currently, THC is obtained as an extract from marijuana or is it synthesized as is always the case for FDA approved medications such as dronbinol. Available in various formulations and under different trade names, THC is currently being used to prevent vomiting and nausea associated with cancer medication. According to the US National Library of Medicine, THC drugs can also be used to increase appetites of individuals living with HIV/AIDS. Even though certain people tout marijuana to be better than prescription drugs simply because it is natural and when smoked or “taken raw”, you get “everything”, this is never true. Because something is referred to as natural does not necessarily mean that it is safe. Prescription THC is far much recommended than smoking weed if you want to tap into the benefits of THC. You should also be careful with THC overdose [*note from editor* non lethal, but unenjoyable ] as this has caused a number of problems, especially in places edibles and foods containing THC are easily available. Posted on April 17, 2019 April 18, 2019 Categories Amateaur Ideas About CannabisTags Benefits of Cannabis, Cannabis FactsLeave a comment on Lamens Understanding of Pot What is Medical Marijuana? Medical marijuana is a term used to refer to the whole unprocessed cannabis plant or its extracts which are used to treat or provide remedy to certain symptoms or medical conditions. In the United States, marijuana is not approved as a medicine by the Food and Drug Administration, though there are a good number of states which already allow the use of medical marijuana under certain circumstances. Several studies have been done revolving marijuana’s ability to be used as a medicine. The main focus of such studies is on a chemical in marijuana known as cannabinoids, and currently, there are two FDA-approved medications which contain this chemical in pill form. It is believed that with further research and findings, more medications will be created and maybe FDA will finally enlist marijuana as a medicine. How marijuana works In order to understand how marijuana works and why it is a candidate for medicine targeting various ailments and conditions, it is important to first understand what cannabinoids are and how they function. Cannabinoids is related to tetrahydrocannabinol and it is the main mind altering substance which makes people high they smoke marijuana. A typical marijuana plant will have more than 100 cannabinoids and it is this substance that most studies aim at extracting, investigating and applying as a remedy to various medical conditions. The body already produces chemicals similar to the cannabinoids present in marijuana. These chemicals are associated with body processes such as pain, movement, appetite and memory. It is believed that the cannabinoids from marijuana help those produced by the body to work faster and better. Numerous researches involving cannabinoids have come to the conclusion that the cannabinoids from marijuana might help in the following: reducing anxiety relieving pain and reducing inflammation kills carcinogenic cells or reduces the instances of malignancy can control nausea and instances of vomiting during chemotherapy can help in the relaxation of tight muscles for people suffering from MS can stimulate appetite and improve weight gain in cancer patients and persons living with HIV/AIDS What ailments can marijuana strains help with? There are quite a number of ailments that medical marijuana is currently being used to treat. They include but are not limited to the following: Asthma – marijuana has a dilating effect on human airways and it makes it easier for asthmatic people to breathe properly. It also has less harmful effect on the lungs compared to tobacco and cigarettes. HIV/AIDS – though it is not a cure, it helps people living with HIV/AIDS to have good appetite and sleep well. These are very vital for their continued survival. Alzheimer’s – marijuana has been effective in treating symptoms associated with this condition such as depression, anxiety, hallucinations, insomnia and aggression. Multiple Sclerosis – patients suffering from multiple sclerosis who take marijuana report to experience less tremors, pain, muscle stiffness and muscle spasms. Menstrual cramps – this is not a disease, but ladies who experience painful cramps during their periods can smoke medical marijuana to ease the pain. Even Queen Victoria did the same during the early 19th century. Posted on April 3, 2019 April 4, 2019 Categories Cannabis as MedicineTags Medincal Marihuana1 Comment on What is Medical Marijuana? What is Indica Indica marijuana is those cannabis strains originally from countries like India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and some parts of Near East and Eastern Europe. Most of the pure indica genetics have strong roots in the Himalayan region and there were introduced to the western countries by the hippies who made trips between the regions back in the 60’s and 70’s. Traits of the Indica plant Indica marijuana strains are known to exhibit the following characteristics: they are short and compact plants, normally doesn’t grow beyond six feet the distance between one node and another, the intermodal is also usually very short the leaves are thick with broad leaflets they have a short flowering period, usually between 45 – 65 days The effects of indica marijuana Indica strains are sedative in nature. Due to this, they are ideal for treating medical symptoms such as muscle sperms and tremors, insomnia, chronic pain, and anxiety. Additionally, they are highly recommended for night use as they can really slow you down during the day. For instance, the use of these strains is highly discouraged if the nature of your activity requires deep concentration such as operating heavy machinery or driving. Popular strains of cannabis indica The following are some of the popular strains of cannabis indica: Northern Light The northern light strain has been a favorite strain for growers all over the world. It’s exact genetic remains unclear, but it is hugely believed that it is a hybrid of 11 different varieties which are all indica-dominant. Some of its most pronounced characteristics include a smooth and distinct flavor with a coch-lock high. Purple Kush It is a hard-hitting favorite strain for millions of growers around the globe and it is one of the most powerful strains of indica marijuana you will ever come across. It is a hybrid between Purple Afghani and Hindu Kush, 100% indica strain. It is known for its deep sedation and pain relief features. Granddaddy Purple Granddaddy Purple is a cross between Big Bud and Purple Urkle. It has fat and lush green buds and the nugs are full of the delicious purple color. Ice Wreck Ice Wreck is another highly potent indica breed boasting of 27.7% THC levels. With it comes a full body stone and it is the strain to go for if you have nothing else to do and all you desire is lazy around for hours. It cultivated well, the plant can yield up to 450grams of leaves per plant at maturity. Aurora Indica This is a cross between Afghan and Northern lights and its THC content stands between 15- 20%. The buds are full of flavor and very ideal for patients who desire good intake of the CBD. Blue Mystic Also known as fruity-licious, the Blue Mystic is a breed between the Northern Lights and Blueberry. It is not only sweet and fruity, but also it is stony and has always been a top choice indica for many indica variety lovers since no other variety matches it in terms of flavor. Posted on April 13, 2019 April 14, 2019 Categories Marijuana FactsTags Cannabis Seeds, IndicaLeave a comment on What is Indica What is CBN and What Are the Benefits of This Cannabinoid Cannabinol, also known as CBN, is simply a metabolite of THC. It is the product of THC breakdown due to the effects of aging or oxidation. The oxidation takes place when THC is exposed to the air. Unlike THC which is known for its high psychoactive effects, CBN is hailed for the fact that it has less high effects and it also comes with a plethora of medical benefits. It is mostly known for its effectiveness in inducing sleep and as such, it is highly preferred for treating cases of insomnia. How CBN affects the body Unlike THC, CBN does not bind itself to the cannabinoid receptors of the brain. Instead, it generates sedative effects, and these become even more powerful when combined with THC. The sedative nature of CBN is one of its most pronounced effects in the body and it is believed that it contributes to the drowsy and sleep inducing feelings associated with indica strains of marijuana because such strains tend to have higher concentration of the CBN. Though it can be used as a sedative, it should be noted that CBN is not psychoactive in anyway. As such, it can make good medicine without necessary making the patients get high. Other than being a sedative, the other benefits of CBN include but are not limited to: Pain relief Can be use for anti-bacterial purposes Can be used to stimulate appetite Bone Regeneration Just like with other components of marijuana, there are quite a number of studies involving CBN and it potential use in the development of various medicines. For instance, recent studies have suggested that that CBN can be effective in stimulating bone tissue growth. This is possible due to ability to stimulate the indirect recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells obtained from the bone marrow of the neighboring bones. These stem cells are not only known to transform into blood cells, but also they have the versatility to turn into tissues and bones. Due to this, CBN can potentially be of help towards the healing of fractures. Healing of psoriasis Other than the ability to generate bone tissues, another magnificent effect of CBN which is still under studies is its ability to reduce the overgrowth of skin cells. Though this may not sound important to many people, it could be of great help to patients suffering from psoriasis, where the skin degenerates four times faster than the normal. With such a property, CBN can helpful in regulating how the body produces the skin cells. Again when applied as topical, the compound has shown tremendous results in the treatment of psoriasis. This is according to a study conducted in 2008. CBN as an anti-inflammatory Just like CBD, CBN also comes with very powerful anti-inflammatory properties. It has pain relieving properties which makes it ideal for the treatment of burns since it will act on TRPV2 receptors – the receptors responsible for causing intense pain during burns. Although trials are yet to be completed, the combination of CBN and CBD can be a powerful remedy for treating burns. Posted on April 11, 2019 April 09, 2019 Categories Cannabis as Medicine, CBNTags CannabinoidLeave a comment on What is CBN and What Are the Benefits of This Cannabinoid What is CBD? Cannabidiol, also known as CBD, is the most dominant compound in cannabis sativa plant. It is completely nonpsychoactive compared to tetrahydrocannabinol, THC. With CBD, you should not expect to get high, but rather, you will get all the relaxation you need without any form of intoxication. This is, however, not to claim that CBD will not have any effect in your body, only that you will not be experiencing the cerebral adventure usually witnessed in the case of THC. For very many years now, medical experts and the general public have missed out in the importance of CBD because a lot of focus was given to the psychoactiave cannabis. Though, this is fast changing and the CBD is now being recognized as a medicinal ingredient in the United Kingdom. A brief history of CBD CBD has a rich history dating back to the spring of 1998 when the British government gave license to GW Pharmaceuticals to grow cannabis with the sole purpose of developing a consistent and precise extract, which was to be used in clinical trials. This was after the pharmaceuticals company convinced the government that they could produce medicine from cannabis and the medicine would have little or no psychoactive effects when taken by human beings. However, this is not when interest on CBD was realized as records show that it has been in use many years before the involvement of the pharmaceuticals in this particular research. For instance, CBD has been used over the years to treat a number of ailments and health complications. During the 19th century, Queen Victoria used it to tame menstrual cramps. Several animal studies have also suggested that CBD has the potential of reducing anxiety as well as reducing the severity and the frequency of seizures in patients suffering from epilepsy. It is only recently when CBD-rich strains became available to marijuana users in places like California. For most of the years, a lot of concentration was on the coming up with marijuana strains rich in THC and this significantly reduced the focus on as well as the amounts of CBD in high growing regions such as North Carolina in the United States. Ailments treated or managed by CBD CBD has been hailed for its effects on epilepsy, but this is not the only condition it can help manage or treat. Though lots of clinical tests and trials are still underway, there is sufficient evidence to suggest that CBD can be used to treat the following: Cigarette addiction Acne Diabetes Multiple Sclerosis Fibromyalgia Schizophrenia Insomnia Mad Cow Disease Cohn’s Disease Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Available Mediums for sale Since it has a wide range of application, CBD is available in various mediums for sale. You will find CBD in forms such as pills, tablets, creams and oils. All these depend on the intended applications. It also goes without saying that there are a number of ways or methods for ingesting or introducing CBD into the body. For instance, for acne treatment, the most common application method would be normal application on the affected spots on the screen as you would do with the ordinary creams. Posted on April 20, 2019 April 14, 2019 Categories Cannabis as Medicine, CBDTags CannabinoidLeave a comment on What is CBD? What is a Seed Bank – Marijuana Seed Bank? Canadian Hemp Co is A Marijuana Seed Bank We ship direct to your door in discrete packaging. Our seeds are never substituted and you are always guaranteed authentic genetics. We work with local farmers to provide consistent and tested marijuana seeds. Visit our store today. Please see below for some generic ideas about Marijuana Seed Banks. The history of Seeds & Seed Banks. The concept of having seed banks first began towards the end of 1980s when biodiversity and extinction of various plants became apparent to the whole world. Through the help of international and national NGOs, communities around the globe began to prepare seed banks of various kinds to primarily preserve the seeds which they thought that were most threatened with extinction back then. During that time, most of the seed banks were owned by communities and some of the countries that pioneered the practice of having seed banks included Ethiopia, Brazil, Bangladesh, Zimbabwe, Nepal, Philippines and Nicaragua. In the north, in countries such as the United States and Canada, there was a special type of community seedbank referred to as the Seed-Savers Network that undertook the preservation of seeds. Such networks started in the USA, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom before they spread to other parts of the world. Through the years, the numbers as well as the diversity of the seed banks have increased tremendously, with the world’s largest seed bank being the Svalbard Global Seed Vault in Norway. The purposes of a Cannabis Seeds & Seed Bank At its basic application, a seed bank was to store and preserve cannabis seeds, especially from animals and extreme weathers. However, there is more to having seed banks currently than just protecting them from getting destroyed. The most important reason for seed banks now is biodiversity. Plants too have specific genetic traits and these ought to be preserved and there is no better place to do that than in a seed bank. Apart from preserving the crop diversity, the other purposes of a seed bank include: To protect the extinction of certain crop species due to climate change. Natural disasters has the potential of wiping out an entire ecosystem and without seed banks, species could be easily lost when such disasters strike. Protection against man-made disasters such as wars and nuclear accidents. Research purposes – the people who lived in the past used plants to cure diseases. When the seeds are preserved, there is the possibility of investigating their medicinal properties in the future. Visit our store today. Marijuana seed banks Marijuana seed banks are where the various strains of marijuana seeds are preserved and stored. It is where growers go to whenever they need the seeds and have the seeds delivered to them. However, it is vital for every grower to approach a marijuana seed bank with great caution. Since it is the desire of every grower to get the best from their marijuana, you should exercise a lot of vigilance when ordering the seeds from the seed banks because not all the pot seeds banks will have similar reputation. Make it a habit of ordering only from the reputable marijuana seed banks. Posted on April 24, 2019 July 6, 2019 Categories Cannabis as MedicineTags Cannabis SeedsLeave a comment on What is a Seed Bank – Marijuana Seed Bank? What are Sativa and What Effects Do They Have? Traits of Sativa Strains by Someone Who Has Never Consumed Cannabis Sativa is one of the distinct species of cannabis, with the other one being indica. The sativa strains are known to grow tall and thin, and this makes them ideal for outdoor growing. Sativa strains have a grass type odor and they are also known to be uplifting and energetic compared to the indica strains. One of the traits of the sativa marijuana plant is that it has a tall scraggly looking leaf with thin and wiry stalks. They are native to the warm climates of Central America, Mexico, and South East Asia. Due to their natural equatorial habitats, the plants enjoy a lot of heat and love outdoors and this is why some of its strains grow very tall up to 12 feet in height. Effects of the sativa marijuana strains One of the distinctive characteristics of sativa dominant marijuana strains is that they provide energetic, uplifting and a cerebral high which makes them most suited to be used during the day. A sativa high comes with a lot of creativity and energy and perhaps this is why some artist prefers taking a puff of this strain before they go for a performance or start painting. Some of the other effects characteristic of the sativa strain marijuana include: Enhances the stimulation of creativity and thought Relieves migraines and headaches Perfect for reducing nausea Suppresses depression Ideal for stimulating appetite Ideal for promoting sense of well being Popular strains of Sativa Marijuana Some of the popular strains of sativa marijuana include: Amnesia Haze Amnesia Haze is one of the strongest strains of sativa marijuana and just as the name suggests, expect to have some deadly amnesia when you smoke this marijuana. It is a favorite for many marijuana growers because it has very good yields and it is extremely long lasting. Sour Diesel Also known as Sour D, Sour Diesel is from California’s Emerald Triangle and it got its names from its characteristic pungent diesel fragrance when being smoked. It is believed that this strain can help writers overcome writing block, and for medical patients, it is used to relieve depression, pain and stress. Strawberry Cough If you are a brave smoker, then the strawberry cough strain of sativa marijuana is for you. It got its name from the berry taste and fragrance it has when being smoked, and additionally, it has the potent ability to make a user cough with excitement during the process of smoking. With the strawberry cough weed, you can expect extreme uplifting which is very ideal for managing anxiety or even stress. Lambs Bread Lambs bread is sometimes called lambs breath and it is the weed to go for if you desire some nice green and sticky marijuana. It is one of the top rated sativa strains and it is ideal for smoking in the company of friends, though you will still enjoy when you are smoking it alone. With it comes a lot of energy and it is also the weed to go for if you want to create a mood of introspection. Posted on April 23, 2018April 24, 2018Categories Amateaur Ideas About CannabisTags Internet Cannabis Ideas, SativaLeave a comment on What are Sativa and What Effects Do They Have? What Are Edibles Cannabis edibles are simply beverages, foods or ingestible tinctures infused with weed. Currently in the market, edibles are referred to using a variety of names, some of which you have probably heard. They include names such as medibles, firecrackers, brown pot and space cakes amongst others. Cannabis edibles are stronger, though it takes slightly longer for the effects to be realized as compared to those who inhale marijuana. However, this should not misguide you to think they are any milder. It is imperative for every user to consume the edible responsibly to avoid the detrimental effects of irresponsible consumption. The history of cannabis edibles in the United States Eating cannabis is not a phenomenon that started in this century. It is a practice which has been there for hundreds of years. For instance, the Chinese emperors used to brew tea using cannabis and Hindus drank bhang tea which was a concoction of ginger, warm milk, gunjah and garam masala. But in the United States, the use of marijuana for recreation began around in 1910, following the influx of Mexicans who introduced the practice in the country. Before then, marijuana use was for medical purposes only. The current era of marijuana edibles can, however, be traced back to 1954, when Alice B Toklas – was an elderly lesbian, published her infamous cookbook which had a recipe known as “Haschich Fudge”. The cookbook brought cooking with cannabis to the mainstream America and from then, various ideas and utilization of marijuana in foods were conceived. It is during this time that edibles like “pot brownies” became popular and we have never looked back since then. Types of marijuana edibles A variety of edibles are available in the market today, and they can be broadly classified into three main categories as follows: Baked goods Baked goods are intended for gastrointestinal absorption. They include all edibles where the marijuana will be ingested into the stomach and absorbed into the body through the stomach linings. Most of the edibles you will find in this category include cookies, brownies and snacks amongst others. Drinks Drinks are intended for oral uptake and they have the advantage of taking effects almost immediately, though they also tend to wear off very quickly. This category also includes the edibles which you hold in your mouth for a given amount of time. Such include tinctures, lozenges and suckers. Oils, butter, liqueurs The final category includes the oils, butter and liqueurs. This category is rather hybrid since the marijuana in the products can be absorbed either in the mouth or in the stomach. Side effects of Marijuana edibles The side effects of cannabis edibles are not so many, and they will typically appear when you take more than the recommended amounts. As usual, the side effects will pronounce themselves differently on each individual and once they are realized, it is imperative for the user to watch their uptake of the edibles. The most common side effects include-: cotton mouth, anxiety and hangovers. To be on the safe side, it is recommended that you start with a smaller portion the edibles and wait for between 30 and 45 minutes to evaluate its effects on the body and also to let you know about the tolerance levels of your body. From there on, you can then adjust the quantities accordingly, but be sure not to take too much of it. Posted on April 23, 2019 July 6, 2019 Categories Cannabis as MedicineTags Cannabis ConnesseurLeave a comment on What Are Edibles Top Ten Amazing Cannabis Studies With the success of cannabis industry in the United States, one would be sufficiently correct to say that studies on marijuana are never going to end. Tones are seen changing as some of the strong voices that at one time opposed the legalization of the substance seem to adopt soft stances and they tend to now support more studies of cannabis across various fields. But as all the hullabaloos go on, here are some of the ten cannabis studies you will find amazing: Legal cannabis can be used to protect young people This is according to a study conducted in Colorado where it was discovered that the number of young people using cannabis after its decriminalization dropped by 22%. Since the legislations came into effect, four out of five young people do not use cannabis, not even on occasional basis. Riding bicycle when high Riding Bicycle when High Study was conducted in Germany where participants who were regular consumers of cannabis were allowed to smoke one, two, and three joints of cannabis and then cycle round a truck after each joint. It was observed that there were no significant changes on how they peddled before and after they smoked. You should, however, not misinterpret the results then go peddling after smoking weed. Those who use cannabis takes fewer seek days This was from a survey dubbed, “The Effect of Cannabis on Sick Leave” and it concluded that there was a significant reduction in the number of those who applied for sick leave after medicinal cannabis and its seeds was legalized. While alcohol makes you aggressive, cannabis makes you calm and peaceful When as study compared the effects of alcohol to those of cannabis, it was discovered that those who consumed cannabis regularly were more peaceful compared to their counterparts who took alcohol on a regular basis. Insulin resistant diabetes and insulin Studies have revealed that cannabis users have better blood sugar values than patients who are non-users. From one particular study, cannabis users had lower values of up to 16% compared to patients who have never smoked cannabis. You can get slim when you smoke cannabis A relation has been established between the Body’s Mass Index and regular use of cannabis and it has been observed that regular users of cannabis never suffer from weight problems. Experts try to attribute this to the ability of cannabis to lower down blood sugar, which is always a contributing factor in obese people. Cannabis can help in the treatment of psychological conditions A research by the University of British Columbia on the potential effects of cannabis withdrawal noted that it could be used as a withdrawal drug for drugs that have more lethal effects and also through the use of cannabis, the use of opioids-based painkillers could also be reduced significantly. Young people know how to handle cannabis better than old people A study in the United Kingdom revealed that younger people, between the ages of 15 – 17 were good at handling cannabis compared to adults who got stoned very fast. Additionally, the study also concluded that cannabis consumption could only be problematic if consumed when people are too young and they consumer too much of it. Cannabis does not reduce the size of the brain There is no hard evidence to suggest that cannabis is related to the development of schizophrenia as has been believed in many quarters and there is no way how the use of cannabis can affect the size of brain, whether in adults or young people. Secondary school pupils in academies smoke more marijuana This is according to a study in Netherlands where it was concluded that there was a connection between the consumption of cannabis and the type of school. Pupils in academies were concluded to take a lot of drugs compared to those in public schools or other types of schools. Posted on April 23, 2019 Categories Amateaur Ideas About Cannabis, Cannabis as MedicineTags Cannabis SeedsLeave a comment Decriminalization of non-medical marijuana in the United States WE accept paypal for marijuana products Jump to: navigation, search Decriminalization of marijuana in the United States began in the 1970s and several jurisdictions have subsequently decriminalized marijuana (also referred to as cannabis) for non-medical purposes, as views on marijuana have liberalized, peaking in 1978.[1] The decriminalization movement supports efforts ranging from reducing penalties for marijuana-related offenses to removing all penalties related to marijuana, including sale and cultivation. Proponents of marijuana decriminalization argue that a substantial amount of law-enforcement resources would be freed, which could be used to prevent more serious crimes, and would reduce income earned by street gangs and organized crime who sell or traffic marijuana. Opponents argue decriminalization will lead to increased crime, increased marijuana usage, and subsequent abuse of other illicit drugs. Contents * 1 History o 1.1 Attempts to decriminalize marijuana * 2 Arguments in support o 2.1 Constitutionality o 2.2 Financial incentives + 2.2.1 Related studies # State specific studies o 2.3 Reduce income earned by organized crime o 2.4 Reduce possible subsequent abuse of other illicit drugs * 3 Arguments in opposition o 3.1 Subsequent abuse of other illicit drugs + 3.1.1 Negating studies o 3.2 Increased crime + 3.2.1 Negating studies o 3.3 Increased marijuana usage + 3.3.1 Negating studies * 4 Advocacy * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links History Main article: Legal history of marijuana in the United States#Decriminalization (1970s—2000s) See also: Places that have decriminalized non-medical marijuana in the United States Multiple states, counties, and cities have decriminalized marijuana. Most places that have decriminalized marijuana have civil fines, drug education, or drug treatment in place of incarceration and/or criminal charges for possession of small amounts of marijuana, or have made various marijuana offenses the lowest priority for law enforcement. A few places, particularly in California, have removed almost all legal penalties for marijuana possession, including personal cultivation. After the 1960s, an era characterized by widespread use of cannabis as a recreational drug, a wave of legislation in United States sought to reduce the penalties for the simple possession of marijuana, making it punishable by confiscation and a fine rather than imprisonment or more severe charges. In 1972, President Richard Nixon commissioned a study on marijuana use from the National Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse.[2] The Commission found that the constitutionality of marijuana prohibition was suspect, and that the executive and legislative branches had a responsibility to obey the Constitution, even in the absence of a court ruling to do so. The Nixon administration did not implement the study's recommendations. However, the report has frequently been cited by individuals supporting cannabis rescheduling in the United States.[citation needed] In 1973, Oregon became the first state to decriminalize marijuana possession.[3] By 1978 Alaska, California, Colorado, Mississippi, New York, Nebraska, North Carolina, and Ohio had some form of marijuana decriminalization.[4] Certain cities and counties, particularly in California, have adopted laws to further decriminalize marijuana. Attempts to decriminalize marijuana In recent history, there have been multiple places that have unsuccessfully attempted to decriminalize marijuana: On November 7, 2000, voters in Alaska rejected Measure 5 by 60-40 percent. Measure 5 would have removed civil and criminal penalties for use of marijuana or other hemp products by adults age 18 and older and would have regulated the sale of marijuana similar to the sale of alcoholic beverages.[5] On November 5, 2002, voters in Nevada rejected Question 9 by 61-39 percent.[6] Question 9 would have legalized possession of marijuana under 85.5 grams (3 ounces) by adults age 21 and older and would allow marijuana to be regulated, cultivated, sold and taxed.[7] Question 9 would have also made low cost marijuana available for medical marijuana patients and would have created laws against "driving dangerously" under the influence of marijuana.[8] On November 2, 2004, voters in Alaska rejected Measure 2 by 44-56 percent. Measure 2 would prompt the state legislature to tax and regulate marijuana, and would have removed criminal penalties for marijuana use by adults aged 21 and older.[9] On November 7, 2006, voters in Colorado and Nevada rejected propositions that would have legalized possession of up to 28.45 grams (one ounce) of marijuana.[10] In Colorado, Amendment 44 would have legalized possession of 28.45 grams or less by adults age 21 and older, but the amendment was rejected by 60-40 percent.[11] In Nevada, Question 7 would have allowed adults 21 and older to purchase marijuana from government-regulated shops and possession of 28.45 grams or less in a private home would have been legalized, but the Question was rejected by 56-44 percent.[12] Arguments in support Constitutionality In 1972, President Richard Nixon commissioned the National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse to produce an in-depth report on marijuana. The report, "Marihuana: A Signal of Misunderstanding," found marijuana prohibition unconstitutional and stated regardless of whether the courts would overturn prohibition of marijuana possession, the executive and legislative branches have a duty to obey the Constitution.[2] "It’s a matter of individual freedom of choice,” said ACLU President Nadine Strossen in an interview. "Does that mean they should do it? Not necessarily, not any more than somebody should smoke or drink or eat McDonald’s hamburgers."[13] Financial incentives Many proponents of marijuana decriminalization have argued partially decriminalizing marijuana would largely reduce costs of maintaining the criminal justice and law enforcement systems, while fully decriminalizing marijuana to allow the cultivation and sale would generate a substantial amount of income from taxing marijuana sales. Other arguments assert that the funds saved from marijuana decriminalization could be used to enforce laws for other, more serious and violent crimes.[14][15] Related studies In 2003, the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) published "Economic Costs of Drug Abuse," which stated without separately analyzing marijuana related costs, the United States was spending $12.1 billion on law enforcement and court costs, and $16.9 billion in corrections costs, totaling $29 billion.[16] In June 2005, a Marijuana Policy Project funded and published a study by Jeffrey Alan Miron entitled "Budgetary Implications of Marijuana Prohibition in the United States." The study found an estimated $7.7 billion in government expenditures on prohibition enforcement would be saved if marijuana were legalized and an estimated $6.2 billion would be gained if marijuana was taxed the same rate as alcohol or tobacco, which would total an estimated $14 billion annually;[17] projected marijuana tax revenues by state. In 2006, a study by Jon Gettman entitled "Marijuana Production in the United States" was published in The Bulletin of Cannabis Reform. The report states marijuana is the top cash crop in 12 states, is one of the top three cash crops in 30 states, and is one of the top five cash crops in 39 states. Gettman estimated the value of U.S. marijuana production at $35.8 billion, which is more than the combined value of corn and wheat. Furthermore, the report states according to federal estimates, eradication efforts have failed to prevent the spread of marijuana production, as marijuana production has increased tenfold in the past 25 years.[18] In 2006, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime released the 2006 World Drug Report, which stated the North American marijuana market is estimated to be worth anywhere from $10 billion to $60 billion annually.[19] State specific studies In 1988, Michael Aldrich and Tod Mikuriya published "Savings in California Marijuana Law Enforcement Costs Attributable to the Moscone Act of 1976" in the Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. The study estimated California saved almost one billion dollars in a twelve-year period between 1976 and 1988, as a result of the Moscone Act of 1976 that decriminalized marijuana.[20] In 2004, Scott Bates of the Boreal Economic Analysis & Research center prepared a study for Alaskans for Rights & Revenues entitled "The Economic Implications of Marijuana Legalization in Alaska." The study estimated the Alaskan government was spending $25-30 million per year enforcing marijuana prohibition laws. The study found if the purchase of marijuana were to be taxed as a legal commodity, tax revenues would increase by about $10-20 million per year, making $35-50 million per year in funds available.[16][21] In 2006, a study by the University of California, Los Angeles found California has saved $2.50 for every dollar invested into Proposition 36, which decriminalized marijuana and other drug possession charges by allowing out patient treatment programs instead of incarceration. In the first year the proposition was enacted (2001), California reportedly saved $173 million, which is likely a result of fewer drug offenders in prison. In the five years after the program was enacted, 8,700 fewer people are in prison for drug offenses.[22] Reduce income earned by organized crime The Drug Enforcement Agency has reported that marijuana sales and trafficking support violent street gangs and motorcycle gangs, including white supremacist gangs.[23][24][25] Proponents of fully decriminalizing marijuana to allow the regulated cultivation and sale of marijuana, including Law Enforcement Against Prohibition, argue fully decriminalizing marijuana would largely decrease financial gains earned by gangs from marijuana sales and trafficking.[26][27][14] Reduce possible subsequent abuse of other illicit drugs A National Institute on Drug Abuse brochure entitled "Marijuana: Facts for Teens" states "Using marijuana puts children and teens in contact with people who are users and sellers of other drugs. So there is more of a risk that a marijuana user will be exposed to and urged to try more drugs."[28] There is no evidence marijuana usage leads to subsequent abuse of other illicit drugs. However, if this is true then fully legalizing marijuana to allow the regulated sale of marijuana would decrease the chance that marijuana users would "be exposed to and urged to try more drugs." Arguments in opposition Subsequent abuse of other illicit drugs In 1985, Gabriel G. Nahas published Keep Off the Grass, which stated that "[the] biochemical changes induced by marijuana in the brain result in drug-seeking, drug taking behavior, which in many instances will lead the user to experiment with other pleasurable substances. The risk of progression from marijuana to cocaine to heroin is now well documented;"[29]. In 1995, Partnership for a Drug-Free America with support from The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and the White House Office of Drug Control Policy launched a campaign against marijuana use citing a Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA) report, which claimed that marijuana users are 85 times more likely than non-marijuana users to try cocaine.[30] However, an article published in The Activist Guide by John Morgan and Lynn Zimmer entitled "Marijuana's Gateway Myth," claims CASA's statistic is false. The article states:[30] “ The high risk-factor obtained is a product not of the fact that so many marijuana users use cocaine but that so many cocaine users used marijuana previously. It is hardly a revelation that people who use one of the least popular drugs are likely to use the more popular ones — not only marijuana, but also alcohol and tobacco cigarettes. The obvious statistic not publicized by CASA is that most marijuana users — 83 percent — never use cocaine. ” Multiple opponents of marijuana decriminalization have claimed increased marijuana use results in increased abuse of other illicit drugs.[14][31] However, multiple studies[citation needed]have found no evidence of a correlation between marijuana use and the subsequent abuse of other illicit drugs. Negating studies In 1997, the Connecticut Law Revision Commission examined states that had decriminalized marijuana and found decriminalizing small amounts of marijuana has no effect on subsequent use of alcohol or "harder" illicit drugs. The study recommended Connecticut reduce marijuana possession of one ounce or less for adults age 21 and over to a civil fine.[32] In 1999, a study by the Division of Neuroscience and Behavioral Health at the Institute of Medicine entitled "Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base," found no evidence of a link between marijuana use and the subsequent abuse of other illicit drugs on the basis of its particular physiological effect.[33] In December 2002, a study by RAND regarding if marijuana use results in the subsequent use of cocaine and heroin was published in the British Journal of Addiction. The researchers created a mathematical model simulating adolescent drug use. National rates of marijuana and hard drug use in the model matched survey data collected from representative samples of youths from across the United States; the model produced patterns of drug use and abuse. The study stated:[34] The people who are predisposed to use drugs and have the opportunity to use drugs are more likely than others to use both marijuana and harder drugs ... Marijuana typically comes first because it is more available. Once we incorporated these facts into our mathematical model of adolescent drug use, we could explain all of the drug use associations that have been cited as evidence of marijuana's gateway effect ... We've shown that the marijuana gateway effect is not the best explanation for the link between marijuana use and the use of harder drugs. In 2004, a study by Craig Reinarman, Peter D. A. Cohen, and Hendrien L. Kaal entitled "The Limited Relevance of Drug Policy: Cannabis in Amsterdam and in San Francisco," was published in the American Journal of Public Health. The study found no evidence that the decriminalization of marijuana leads to subsequent abuse of other illicit drugs. The study also found the mean age at onset of marijuana use and the mean age of marijuana users are both higher in Amsterdam than in San Francisco.[35][36] In 2006, the Karolinska Institute in Sweden used twelve rats to examine how adolescent use of marijuana affects subsequent abuse of other illicit drugs. The study gave six of the twelve "teenage" rats a small dose of THC, reportedly equivalent to one joint smoked by a human, every three days. The rats were allowed to administer heroin by pushing a lever and the study found the rats given THC took larger doses of heroin. The institute examined the brain cells in the rats and found THC alters the opioid system that is associated with positive emotions, which lessens the effects of opiates on rat's brain and thus causes them to use more herion.[37] Paul Armentano, policy analyst for NORML, claimed because the rats were given THC at the young age of 28 days, it is impossible to extrapolate the results of this study to humans.[38] In December 2006, a 12 year gateway drug hypothesis study on 214 boys from ages 10-12 by the American Psychiatric Association was published in the American Journal of Psychiatry. The study concluded adolescents who used marijuana prior to using other drugs, including alcohol and tobacco, were no more likely to develop a substance abuse disorder than subjects in the study who did not use marijuana prior to using other drugs.[39][40] Increased crime The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) has claimed that marijuana leads to increased crime in the un-sourced pamphlet entitled "Speaking Out Against Drug Legalization."[41] Negating studies Studies have found no evidence of a link between marijuana usage and an increase in crime, but rather have found marijuana may decrease criminal behavior when under the influence.[42][2] In 1973, a report by the National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse entitled "Marijuana: A Signal of Misunderstanding" found marijuana does not cause violent or aggressive behavior, but rather "marihuana was usually found to inhibit the expression of aggressive impulses by pacifying the user, interfering with muscular coordination, reducing psychomotor activities and generally producing states of drowsiness lethargy, timidity and passivity."[42][2] In 2001, a report by David Boyum and Mark Kleiman entitled "Substance Abuse Policy from a Crime-Control Perspective" found the "high" from marijuana is unlikely to trigger violence and concluded:[43] “ Making marijuana legally available to adults on more or less the same terms as alcohol would tend to reduce crime, certainly by greatly shrinking the illicit market and possibly by reducing alcohol consumption via substitution if smoking marijuana acts, on balance, as a substitute for drinking alcohol rather than a complement to it since drinking seems to have a greater tendency to unleash aggression than does cannabis use. ” In 2004, a study by Scott Bates from the Boreal Economic Analysis & Research center entitled "The Economic Implications of Marijuana Legalization in Alaska," was prepared for Alaskans for Rights & Revenues. The study found there was no link between marijuana use and criminal behavior.[21] Increased marijuana usage The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) has claimed that marijuana decriminalization will lead to increased marijuana use and addiction in the un-sourced pamphlet entitled "Speaking Out Against Drug Legalization".[44] The pamphlet states in 1979, after 11 states decriminalized private marijuana use, marijuana use among 12th grade students was almost 51 percent and in 1992, when stricter marijuana laws were put in place, the usage rate reduced to 22 percent. The pamphlet also states that when Alaska decriminalized marijuana, the marijuana use rate among youth rose twice as much as the youth usage rates nationwide; even though the law did not apply to anyone under the age of 19, the pamphlet explains this is why Alaska re-criminalized marijuana in 1990. Save Our Society From Drugs (SOS) has also stated that decriminalizing marijuana will increase usage among teenagers, citing an increase in Alaskan youth marijuana usage when marijuana was decriminalized.[45] Negating studies In 1972, President Richard Nixon commissioned the National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse to produce an in-depth report on marijuana. The report, entitled "Marihuana: A Signal of Misunderstanding," reviewed existing marijuana studies and concluded that marijuana does not cause physicial addiction.[2] In 1997, the Connecticut Law Revision Commission examined states that had decriminalized marijuana and found any increase in marijuana usage was less than the increase in states that have not decriminalized marijuana; furthermore, the commission stated "the largest proportionate increase [of marijuana use] occurred in those states with the most severe penalties." The study recommended Connecticut reduce marijuana possession of 28.35 grams (one ounce) or less for adults age 21 and over to a civil fine.[32] In 1999, a study by the Division of Neuroscience and Behavioral Health at the Institute of Medicine entitled "Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base," concluded "there is little evidence that decriminalization of marijuana use necessarily leads to a substantial increase in marijuana use."[33] In 2001, a report by Robert MacCoun and Peter Reuter entitled "Evaluating alternative cannabis regimes," was published in the The British Journal of Psychiatry. The report found there was no available evidence marijuana use would increase if marijuana were decriminalized.[46] In 2004, a study entitled "The Limited Relevance of Drug Policy: Cannabis in Amsterdam and in San Francisco," found strict laws against marijuana use have a low impact on usage rates.[36] Advocacy Multiple U.S. based advocate groups exist, such as Law Enforcement Against Prohibition, Students for Sensible Drug Policy, The Drug Policy Alliance, the Marijuana Policy Project, NORML, and Coalition for Rescheduling Cannabis. There are many individual American marijuana activists, such as Jack Herer, Paul Armentano, Edward Forchion, Jon Gettman, Rob Kampia, and Keith Stroup; Marc Emery, a well-known Canadian activist, has supported marijuana activism in the U.S. among other countries by donating money earned from Cannabis Culture magazine and In June 2005, Jeffrey Alan Miron, a libertarian economist and Visiting Professor of Economics at Harvard University and more than 530 distinguished economists, including nobel prize-winning economist Milton Friedman, called for the legalization of marijuana in an open letter to President George W. Bush, the United States Congress, Governors, and State Legislatures of the United States.[47] The open letter contained Miron's "Budgetary Implications of Marijuana Prohibition in the United States" report (view report). In 1997, the Connecticut Law Revision Commission recommended Connecticut reduce marijuana possession of one ounce or less for adults age 21 and over to a civil fine.[32] In 2001, the New Mexico state-commissioned Drug Policy Advisory Group stated that decriminalizing marijuana "will result in greater availability of resources to respond to more serious crimes without any increased risks to public safety."[15] A few places in California have been advocating marijuana decriminalization. On November 3, 2004, Oakland passed Proposition Z, which decriminalized marijuana. The proposition states the city of Oakland must advocate to the state of California to adopt laws to regulate and tax marijuana.[48] On November 7, 2006, Santa Cruz passed Measure K, which decriminalized marijuana. The measure requests the Santa Cruz City Clerk send letters annually to state and federal representatives advocating reform of marijuana laws.[49] On June 5, 2007, Mendocino County Board of Supervisors voted 4-1 to send a letter in support of the legalization, regulation, and taxation of marijuana to state and federal legislators, and the President of United States.[50] Mike Gravel, a former U.S. senator from Alaska and 2008 presidential candidate, responded to a caller on a CSPAN program asking about marijuana and the drug war, he stated "That one is real simple, I would legalize marijuana. You should be able to buy that at a liquor store."[51] Dennis Kucinich , a U.S. representative from Ohio and 2008 presidential candidate, has been an advocate of marijuana legalization. During Kucinich's 2004 presidential campaign, the following was posted on Kucinich's official campaign web site.[52] “ Most marijuana users do so responsibly, in a safe, recreational context. These people lead normal, productive lives — pursuing careers, raising families and participating in civic life ... A Kucinich administration would reject the current paradigm of 'all use is abuse' in favor of a drug policy that sets reasonable boundaries for marijuana use by establishing guidelines similar to those already in place for alcohol. ” See also * Legal issues of cannabis * Cannabis rescheduling in the United States References 1. ^ Engs, Ruth Clifford. Clean Living Movements: American Cycles of Health Reform, 2000. Page 218. 2. ^ a b c d e Marihuana: A Signal of Misunderstanding. National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse (reproduced in: The Schaffer Library of Drug Policy) (March, 1972). Retrieved on 2007-04-20. 3. ^ Hardaway, Robert M. No Price Too High: Victimless Crimes and the Ninth Amendment, 2003. Page 94. 4. ^ Peter De Marneffe and Douglas N. Husak. The Legalization of Drugs, 2005. Page 8. 5. ^ Ballot Measure Results for States. CNN (2000). Retrieved on 2007-03-21. 6. ^ Ballot Measures. CNN. Retrieved on 2007-03-21. 7. ^ Ed Vogel. "State voters reject legalizing marijuana", Las Vegas Review-Journal, 2002-11-06. Retrieved on 2007-03-21. 8. ^ Jodi Else (2002). CIR Report: Nevada Ballot Question 9. McGeorge School of Law. Retrieved on 2007-03-21. 9. ^ Marijuana Initiatives: November 2004. MPP. Retrieved on 2007-06-22. 10. ^ Marijuana legalization measures fail in Colorado, Nevada, South Dakota (2006-11-08). Retrieved on 2006-11-08. 11. ^ Ballot Measures: Colorado Amendment 44. CNN. Retrieved on 2007-03-20. 12. ^ State Races: Nevada. CNN. Retrieved on 2007-03-20. 13. ^ Shankbone, David. "Interview with Nadine Strossen" Wikinews (2007-10-30). Retrieved on 2007-11-14. 14. ^ a b c "Nevadans to vote on legalizing marijuana", MSNBC, 2006-10-17. Retrieved on 2007-03-27. 15. ^ a b Report and Recommendations: Governor's Drug Policy Advisory Group. Drug Policy Alliance (Jan 2001). 16. ^ a b James Austin, Ph.D. (2005-11-02). Rethinking the Consequences of Decriminalizing Marijuana. The JFA Institute (published on NORML)]. Retrieved on 2006-12-24. 17. ^ Milton Friedman, 500+ Call for Marijuana Regulation Debate. on 2007-01-13. 18. ^ Jon Gettman (2006). Marijuana Production in the United States. Retrieved on 2007-03-20. 19. ^ Hickman, John. "UNODC Makes the Case for Ending Cannabis Prohibition—Inadvertently", Baltimore Chronicle. Retrieved on 2007-06-20. 20. ^ Savings in California Marijuana Law Enforcement Costs Attributable to the Moscone Act of 1976 - A Summary. Retrieved on 2007-03-20. 21. ^ a b The Economic Implications of Marijuana Legalization in Alaska. Retrieved on 2007-03-21. 22. ^ "Saving money and aiding drug users", The San Diego Union-Tribune, 2006-04-17. Retrieved on 2007-03-23. 23. ^ National Drug Threat Assessment 2006. National Drug Intelligence Center (February 2005). Retrieved on 2007-04-02. 24. ^ National Drug Threat Assessment 2004. National Drug Intelligence Center (April 2004). Retrieved on 2007-04-02. 25. ^ California Northern and Eastern Districts Drug Threat Assessment. National Drug Intelligence Center (January 2001). Retrieved on 2007-04-03. 26. ^ Dean Becker. Law Enforcement Against Prohibition. Retrieved on 2007-04-03. 27. ^ Ed Vogel. "Legalization Initative: Marijuana measure opposed", Las Vegas Review-Journal, 2006-04-11. Retrieved on 2007-04-19. 28. ^ Marijuana: Facts for Teens National Institute on Drug Abuse 29. ^ Nahas, Gabriel (1985). Kepp off the Grass. P.S. Eriksson. ISBN 083974384X. 30. ^ a b Marijuana's Gateway Myth. The Activist Guide. Retrieved on 2006-03-26. 31. ^ "Light Drugs, Heavy Consequences", Zenit News Agency (published on Indian Catholic), 2007-06-03. Retrieved on 2007-06-10. 32. ^ a b c Connecticut Law Revision Commission Drug Policy Report - Part 1. Connecticut Law Revision Commission (1997-01-21). Retrieved on 2007-03-26. 33. ^ a b Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base. National Academies Press (1999). Retrieved on 2007-03-30. 34. ^ RAND Study Casts Doubt on Claims that Marijuana Acts as "Gateway" to the Use of Cocaine and Heroin.. RAND (2002-12-02). Retrieved on 2007-06-10. 35. ^ Jennifer McNulty. "Dutch drug policies do not increase marijuana use, first rigorous comparative study finds", UC Santa Cruz Currants, 2004-05-03. Retrieved on 2007-03-20. 36. ^ a b The Limited Relevance of Drug Policy: Cannabis in Amsterdam and in San Francisco. American Journal of Public Health (2004). Retrieved on 2007-03-20. 37. ^ Vince, Gaia. "Why teenagers should steer clear of cannabis",, 2006-07-05. Retrieved on 2007-05-12. 38. ^ Smith, Jordan. "Reefer Madness", The Austin Chronicle, 2006-11-03. Retrieved on 2007-05-13. 39. ^ Marijuana Use Per Se Not a 'Gateway' To Illicit Drug Use, Study Says. NORML (2006-12-07). Retrieved on 2007-06-09. 40. ^ Predictors of Marijuana Use in Adolescents Before and After Licit Drug Use: Examination of the Gateway Hypothesis. American Journal of Psychiatry (December 2006). Retrieved on 2007-06-09. 41. ^ Fact 9: Europe’s More Liberal Drug Policies Are Not the Right Model for America.. Drug Enforcement Administration. Retrieved on 2007-04-17. 42. ^ a b Daly, Max. "Is cannabis really a killer?", BBC, 2007-03-23. Retrieved on 2007-04-17. 43. ^ Substance Abuse Policy from a Crime-Control Perspective (2001). Retrieved on 2007-06-07. 44. ^ Speaking Out Against Drug Legalization, Fact 6. Drug Enforcement Administration (May 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-26. 45. ^ "Opponents Take Aim At Marijuana Amendment", CBS: Denver, 2006-09-20. Retrieved on 2007-04-19. 46. ^ Evaluating alternative cannabis regimes. British Journal of Psychiatry (2001). Retrieved on 2007-03-31. 47. ^ An Open Letter to the President, Congress, Governors, and State Legislatures Prohibition Costs 48. ^ Meeasure Z: Marijuana Law Enforcement - Alameda County, CA. Smart Voter. Retrieved on 2006-12-24. 49. ^ Measure K - Lowest Law Enforcement Priority Initiative: FAQ. Santa Cruz Ciitizens or Sensible Marijuana Policy. Retrieved on 2007-06-11. 50. ^ Mintz, Katie. "Marijuana legalization letter OK'd", Ukiah Daily Journal, 2007-06-06. Retrieved on 2007-06-11. 51. ^ Part 2 - Mike Gravel - The Issues that Matter - Washington Journal.. You Tube. Retrieved on 2007-06-13. 52. ^ "Newsbrief: Campaign Watch -- Kucinich Says Legalize It",, 2003-12-19. Retrieved on 2007-06-13.

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